giovedì 26 gennaio 2012


The features of the American Indians are very similar to the Mongols who live in Asia [video Redskin Ivo Nardi Russian], this is because the current Bering Strait did not exist and Asia and America, being attached to each other, thus allowing these transit populations by setting their home first in Canada and later the United States. Their first contact with the rest of the world date back some 1,100 years after Christ, are the Vikings have the honor to meet this new breed first.But the turning point to their existence, is in 1492, when Christopher Columbus, who had to come to India, landed on their shores, and so these new people called "Indians." A few years later, leaving the first European expeditions to explore the new continent, and thus the colonization of the eastern United States and Canada resulting in clashes with the start of the tribes threatened in those lands.In 1755 the British and the French start a war to possess the Ohio Valley. Even the American Indians participating in this war, the Iroquois allies of the English, while the Algonquins are allied to the French. The war ended in 1763 (it will be called "the Seven Years' War") with the victory of the British signed the Treaty of Paris.In 1763 Parliament grants Native Americans the right to remain on lands not yet sold and guarantees peace for their people. But around 1770, the Iroquois were forced to sign the Treaty of Stanwick which forces them to move farther west and to abandon the lands where they had always lived. The European settlers in the territories of Native and expand, breaking the Treaty of 1763, drive out the Shawnee and Delaware, by going against the British who were in favor of an alliance with the Natives.In subsequent years, continuing the wars between the British and Americans, to which the Natives are taking part, but when born in 1787 the United States, for all the Indian tribes is the beginning of the end.The first president of Washington, began a war against the Indians at the Battle of Fallen Timbers door, where the Indians suffered a strong defeat at the hands of the American army led by January Waine, aided by the treachery of the British, who, at first, had promised their help.In August 1795, the Shawnee and Miami tribes, were forced to sign the Treaty of Greenville, by which lost about 60,000 square miles of territory.And 'in the light of these events that Tecumseh became a youth leader of the Shawnee tribe, begins a long journey across North America, with the intent to persuade other leaders to create an Indian state in which all the tribes together prove .But while the white man continues to want to expand, and so we arrive at where the 1830 U.S. Congress passes a decree, the "Indian Removal Act", by which the tribes of the south-east are forced to leave their lands and move west of the Great Mississippi River.Between 1850 and 1853 of the tribes' west, Sioux, Cheyenne, Arapaho, Crow, Apache and Comanche, convinced that the army will protect them from the pioneers, sign treaties for the construction of roads and strong in their territories. The answer is always the same: the army and pioneers invade the territories, relegating the tribes in the territories insufficient. Thus began a period in which the American Indians, notable for a series of attacks against both the army against the pioneers.In 1858 the Mexicans exterminate the family of Geronimo, who swore eternal hatred against them, the battle of one of the most famous and terrible leaders in history. He was captured and imprisoned in the reserve of San Carlos, which manages to escape and unleash hell in the south-west is resumed but still manages to escape from the reserve, after years of fighting, tired of fighting gives up and asks for a reservation in homeland for his people.He ends his life as an attraction in a traveling show.Between 1862 and 1868, despite being the Civil War, Gen. Carleton and Kit Carson attacked the Navaho who refuse to relocate to a reserve to the east of New Mexico. After years of struggle, exhausted by hunger and disease, the tribe accepts the transfer.The same treatment was reserved for Apache, with their chiefs Cochise and Red Channel, before giving up, for some years making massacres spread terror passed into history.In 1864 the Cheyenne attacked a freight train. The col. Chivington in response attacks the village of Sand Creek, although the Indians expose the white flag in surrender. In the massacre did not even spare women and children. The Sioux led by Red Cloud and Crazy Horse in revenge for Sand Creek, attract an ambush in the regiment of the army and kill all men. Follow a series of clashes with losses on both sides, but highlighting the strategy, the valor and courage of the two Sioux chiefs.In 1868 the Cheyenne of Pot Black, who had survived the Sand Creek and had fought for peace between whites and American Indians, are attacked by surprise by Custer on the Washita River is another massacre.In 1872 are the Modoc to flee from a reserve in which they were confined together with the Klamath who were not on good terms.Led by Kintpuash (Captain Jack), reach their lands on the Lava Beds. Thanks to the astuteness of their chief and difficult terrain, withstand long pursuit of the Americans, forcing them to one of the hardest and most expensive wars. Kintpuash was captured and hanged.The 1876 is a very important year in the history of Native Americans. The Sioux of Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse, join the Cheyenne of Two Moons, and hold a big ceremony called "Sun Dance" on the banks of the river Rosebud. After a few days are attacked by the troops of Gen. Crook, but after a tough battle Crazy Horse and his men stand up and have the best.Is then ordered General Custer to scout ahead, without waiting for reinforcements, but the latter decided to attack. Sitting Bull is to evacuate the camp, ordering his men to leave the fires lit and ready to hide in the hills surrounding the attack. Custer is convinced to take the Indians by surprise and will launch its seventh regiment of cavalry against the camp, but when he realizes that it is empty, the Indian warriors emerge from the hills and there is no hope for him. This is the most important victory in the history of the Native.In 1877 the Nez Perce are also forced to leave their homeland in the Wallowa Valley, and moved to a reserve, a portion of the tribe did not accept and flees pursued by the army. Thus began a long march by the Natives led by Chief Joseph, during which successive collisions with the U.S. Army, and that will lead them to reach the camp of Sitting Bull in Canada.In 1878, after the Battle of Little Bighorn, the Cheyenne and the Arapaho agreed to go and live on reservations, with the promise of the American government to be able to return to their lands if the reserves were not to their liking. Of course, the subject turns out to be dry and no game to hunt, and led by Native Knife and Little Wolf Checked begin a flight to return to their lands, which will get a reservation in their lands, after years of fighting and many losses of men.On 12 December 1890, the army went to the house to arrest Sitting Bull. Only after three days the soldiers manage to enter the house defended by fighters loyal to their leader, Sitting Bull fell wounded while Red Tomahawk inflicts the final blow.Also in 1890 the seventh regiment of cavalry, comprising the Sioux at Wounded Knee Creek with the intent to transfer to other reserves. Due to some conflict, the soldiers opened fire and eventually kill more than three hundred men, women and children.Between 1891 and 1898 all Native Americans are forever relegated to the reserves, with the exception of the Chippewa that give rise to a revolt that ends in a bloodbath.From 1900 onwards, associations are born sensitive to the problems of Indians who seek to preserve the culture and life of the people on reservations and in 1934 founded the Indian Reorganization Act, with which the Indians manage to get some more and see the right to increase territories at their disposal

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